What is a computer? History of computer

What is a computer? 

A computer is a machine that performs specific instructions. It is an electrical device designed to work with information. The word is derived from the Latin word “computer”. Compute the meaning of computer words.


A computer machine has basically three functions. The first is taking data which we call input. The second function is to process what we call processing and the third function is to show the data after processing which we call output. These three steps are basically computer work.

Charles Babbage is said to be the father of the modern computer. Because he designed the first mechanical computer, also known as Analytical Engine. Data was inserted in the computer machine of that time with the help of Punch Care.

So we can call a computer an advanced electronic device that takes raw data as input from the user. It then processes that data through a program (as instructed) and publishes the final result as output. 

It processes arithmetic and logical calculations both numerically and non-numerically.

What is a computer?

A computer is an electric device that can perform mathematical calculations very quickly and accurately by following precise instructions. 


The word computer comes from the Greek word “computer”. The word compute means to calculate. And the word computer means calculator.


But now computers are no longer just calculators. Because computers are now a device that receives information and analyzes and presents it through various processes. At the heart of the development of civilization and its rapid progress at present is the strong influence of mathematics and computers.


Today’s computers are capable of storing, retrieving, and processing data. You can now type documents, send emails, play games and browse the web with your current computer. You can create spreadsheets, presentations and even videos with your computer.


What does the word computer mean?

Compute the meaning of computer words. When computers were first invented, computers were used only as a computing machine. As technology advances, computers are used to perform a variety of tasks outside of computing. From then until today, we all know the computer literally as a computing device.

What is the full form of computer?

Technically there is no perfect form of computer. Computers still have an imaginary full form. Which literally means the following.

  • C – Commonly
  • O – Operated
  • M – Machine
  • P – Particularly
  • U – Used for
  • T – Technical and
  • E – Educational
  • R – Research


If you translate the full form of the word computer into Bengali in the literal sense, then the word computer will mean “conventional operating machine especially used for business, education and research. However, in reality, this form of computer has no Bengali meaning. Since the computer of the present age is mainly used in the above work, thus the full form of computer is taken.

Computer history

It is unknown at this time what he will do after leaving the post. However, officially the development of computer has been divided into 5 parts according to the generation. Basically, with the development of computers, computers have been divided according to such generations. So that different types of computers can be easily identified.

1.The first generation of computers 1940-1958 (Vacuum Tubes)


Vacuum tubes and magnetic drums were used as circuits in the memory of first generation computers. One of the computers of that generation would have been huge. This type of computer used a lot of energy to run.


Due to the large size of the computer to use a variety of problems. Excessive power consumption, in particular, caused the computer to overheat and break down frequently. It was not possible to move such computers from one place to another.

2.Second Generation of Computer 1956-1973 (Transistor)


Second generation computers use transistors instead of vacuum tubes. As a result, the size of the computer is much smaller than the first generation computer. 

At the same time, second generation computers could work much faster than first generation computers. But even 2nd generation computers generated a lot of heat while working. COBOL and FORTRAN were used as programming languages ​​in second generation computers.

3.Third Generation of Computer 1974-1981 (Integrated Circuits)

Third Generation of Computer 1974-1981 (Integrated Circuits)

Integrated Circuits were first used on third generation computers. 

The transistors were very small and were inserted inside a silicon chip called a semiconductor. As a result, the processing power of third generation computers is many times higher than those of second generation computers. 


For the first time, monitors, keyboards, and operating systems were used to make third-generation computers more usable. The first third generation computer was marketed. As a result, people started using it as a personal computer.

4.The fourth generation of computers 1981-1975 (microprocessors)


The first microprocessors of the fourth generation computer were used to improve the computer. Through which thousands of computer integrated circuits were integrated into a single silicon chip. 


As a result, the size of the computer becomes much smaller and the working capacity of the computer increases.

5. Fifth generation of computers since 1975 (Artificial Intelligence)


Artificial Intelligence technology has become more prevalent in all the computers of the present time starting from the fifth generation computers. At the same time, advanced technology of Speech Recognition, Parallel Processing, Quantum Calculation has been used more than the current generation of computers.


Due to the use of artificial intelligence in today’s generation of computers, computers can now make their own decisions. Earlier computers could not do anything on their own but today’s computers can use their artificial intelligence to work on their own and process any kind of data.


What is a digital computer?

Nowadays, computer means digital computer. Origin of digital word from digital word. Characters, numbers, signals, symbols, etc. are used as inputs in digital computers. Digital computers are primarily based on mathematical principles and are capable of delivering very fine and accurate results. 

Digital computers work on the basis of number processing.

Who invented the computer?

No specific information is available about who invented the computer. Because there are many people behind computer modernization. 


But Charles Babbage contributed the most. Because he was the first to invent analytical computer in 1838. For which Charles Babbage is called the father of modern computers.


The modern computer is based on the model of the computer that Charles Babbage invented in 1838. For that reason, Charles Babbage’s contribution is widely regarded as the father of modern computers.


What is a computer?

A computer is a device that processes user-input data and consequently delivers information, meaning a computer is an electric machine that follows user-directed instructions. It has the ability to store, retrieve and process data.


A computer is a machine. Therefore, it will not be possible to give any definite definition. However, the word computer comes from the English word “compute” which means to calculate. So the computer can be called a counting machine.


How does a computer work?

Typically a computer performs three steps. By completing all the processes we get to see our desired information on the computer screen. There are three main steps in performing computer tasks:

  • Input

  • Process

  • Output


Input (Data): When we provide information to the computer using computer mouse and keyboard, it is called input data. It can be any text, picture and video. 


Process: Data processing is the work of the processing unit according to the information you provide. This part is not visible. Because it is an internal function of the computer.


Output: When we input computer data through the input device, it processes the information that is displayed on the screen of the computer monitor, which is called output. In this way the computer performs the work in three steps and shows in front of us.

What are the basic units of computer?

Computers are made up of countless small chips. Which have been divided into different parts. If you have ever seen a computer in an open state, you will find that it has a lot of small parts that look very complicated.

But in reality these are not so complicated. Now we will discuss the important parts or units of computer.

Computer Motherboard

The main circuit board of any computer is called the motherboard. The computer motherboard looks like a thin plate with numerous chips attached to it. Connectors for CPUs, RAMs, hard drives and optical drivers, expansion cards for controlling video and audio, and connections to all computer ports are connected to the motherboard. In a word, all the parts of a computer are connected to the motherboard.

CPU or processor

The computer processor is called the main processing unit of the computer. This is because the processor actively performs all the activities that take place in the computer. Moreover, the processor helps in all kinds of processing inside the computer. The better the processor in a computer, the faster the computer.


The RAM of a computer is called the temporary memory of a computer. When any work is done on a computer, RAM stores that information in its memory. When the computer is turned off again, RAM removes that information from its memory.


Usually the RAM of the computer is measured by MB or GB. The more RAM the computer has, the better the computer will work.

Hard drive

Hard drive is the permanent memory of a computer. It works like a memory card in our mobile. Just as if you put a file or a song in the memory card of a mobile, you can use it again and again, just like if you put something in the hard drive of the computer, it can be accessed again and again.No data is deleted from the hard drive when the computer is turned off.


Power supply unit

This is called power supply unit.  Because the power supply unit provides the power required by the computer. Without a power supply the computer may take electrical shorts and the computer may break down.

Expansion Card

All types of computers nowadays have expansion slots so that we can add an expansion card in the future. These are also called PCI cards. Expansion slots are basically used to connect some special cards to the computer. E.g.

  1. Graphics card
  2. Video card
  3. Sound card
  4. Network card
  5. Bluetooth card


What is computer hardware and software?

The parts of a computer that we can usually see and grasp are called computer hardware. Such as computer mouse, keyboard, processor and monitor etc. Computer hardware is made of a variety of hard materials that we can easily recognize by looking.


On the other hand, computer software is a computer program. Usually all the work we do inside the computer is software. Computer software can be seen but not touched. Software is used to perform computer tasks, such as MS Word, Excel, Power Point, Photoshop and many more.


Basically computer hardware and software work together. Just as computers are useless without hardware, so computers are useless without software. The bottom line is that computers are made up of hardware and software. So one without the other is completely useless.


How many types of computers and what are they?

By computer we mean only personal computers, laptops and desktops. But in the real sense, there are many more types of computers, big and small. For example, the ATM machine that I use to withdraw money is also a kind of computer. 

Barcode scanners, large calculators, etc. are a type of computer. Here are some types of computers:


1.Desktop computer


Many people use desktop computers in their home, school and for their personal work. These are designed in such a way that we can easily put them on our desk. This type of computer has monitor, keyboard, mouse, computer case and some other parts.


We are all more or less familiar with laptops. We all like to use laptop computers nowadays as a laptop is very light and thin and can be easily carried. The special feature of the laptop is that it has a battery attached and can be easily operated anywhere.


Tablet is a kind of handheld computer. It does not have any kind of keyboard and mouse. There is only one torch screen in which all the work of the computer can be done by touching. This type of computer looks a lot like a mobile. However, the computer screen on the tablet is much larger than a normal mobile.


A server is a type of computer that we use to exchange information. For example, whenever we search for something on the Internet, it is stored on a server. The post you are currently reading on this blog is also stored on a server.Basically server computers are connected to the Internet.

5.Other computers


In addition to the above computers, there are many other types of computers which we do not consider as normal computers. Now we come to the part where we talk about the middle ground. However, you may be surprised to know that they are computers.


Smartphone is one of the most widely used mobile phones at present. Now everyone has a smartphone in their hand. Due to the age of internet and social media, we now prefer to use smartphones rather than big computers.


A type of wearable digital device available, including a fitness tracker and a smartwatch that are easy to use. An advanced smartwatch offers the same benefits as a smartphone.


iii. Game Control 


All the game controls that I use to play games in my house are also a kind of mini computer. At present gaming consoles use a lot of advanced computer technology.


Today’s smart TV is a kind of computer. Because smart TV has many facilities of a computer. Especially with internet connection you can enjoy all kinds of TV programs starting from internet browsing on smart television.


What is the computer used for?

If you take a closer look, you will see that computers are being used in almost all our work at present. Computers have become an important part of our lives. Computers are now being used to solve many complex and difficult tasks starting from daily life. Below are some important computer functions.


Use of computer in education

In the digital age, the use of computer is the most in the field of education. Because a student can learn anything from the internet at the moment if he wants. 

Especially since the introduction of online classes since Kovid-19, the use of computer in the campus has increased even more. Moreover, a study has shown that with the help of computer, a student can easily learn any subject which is not possible to learn in any other way.

Use of computer in health and medical field

Medical science has advanced a lot due to the advancement of computer science. Computers are now used to treat any complex disease. From a normal X-ray to a variety of difficult and complex operations, the computer has to be used.

In fact, it is impossible to imagine an advanced medical system without computers.

Use of computers in business

Computers have a huge hand in increasing productivity and competition in business. Computers are mainly used in marketing, retail, banking, stock trading. 

Moreover, nowadays most of the transactions are done online rather than cash transactions which is not possible without computer. Computers, in particular, have contributed to the revolution of digital marketing.

Use of computer for entertainment

A huge platform for computer entertainment. If you have an internet connection in your hand, you can enjoy all kinds of entertainment including movies, movies, sports from all over the world sitting at the computer. Personal computers are mostly purchased for entertainment.

Use of computer in government work

Nowadays the government is also paying more attention to the use of computer. If we talk about traffic, tourism, information and broadcasting, education, aviation, you will see the use of computers everywhere. 

Now computerization is being done through computer in almost all government jobs starting from government college varsity to passport immigration. Therefore, the use of computer in government work is increasing at a huge rate. 

Computer benefits

Computers have made our lives easier and more accurate. The biggest advantage of computer is that after doing any work on the computer, that work can be saved. As a result, another work can be done by modifying that work. Which cannot be done in any other way except computer.

Moreover, another great advantage of computer is that it is possible to do any work very accurately using computer. Because if the computer inputs the correct information, the computer will never give the slightest wrong information. 

That is why people are now trying to make all the work suitable for computer as one can expect 100% accurate results by using computer.

Computers have billions of benefits that cannot be overstated. However, here we will learn about some of the special benefits of the computer.




Multitasking is a big advantage of computers. It allows a person to easily calculate multiple tasks, multiple activities, numerical problems in a few seconds. Computers can easily calculate trillions of instructions per second.


Computers are no longer just a computing device. Now it has become an important part of our lives. Another great advantage of a computer is its high speed, which can solve any big task in a very short time. Normally the computer can solve the task you used to do in one hour in just one minute.

3.Low cost

From calculations to various tasks where normally you would have to take the help of 10 people, the computer will be able to solve that task in just a few minutes or hours. As a result, you can reduce your extra expenses by doing all the work with the help of computer without hiring more than one person.


Basically, because computers can do any job very accurately, now everyone is using computers for almost all kinds of big tasks starting from housework. If you input any information correctly into the computer then the computer will give you 100% accurate information.

5.Data protection

Computers are now being used in almost all tasks for information security and security. Computers have a very good security system, especially to protect any confidential information. People nowadays are using computer security to secure many big assets starting from money. So there can be nothing better than computer in terms of data security.

Computer problems

Just as everything in this world has its ups and downs, computers have so many advantages as well as disadvantages. This time we will learn about some of the important problems of computer.


1.Virus and hacking attacks


We all know more or less about computer viruses. A computer virus is a malicious program on a computer. Hacking, on the other hand, is unauthorized access to a computer. Through which a hacker steals your computer information without your permission.


Computer viruses can destroy important documents and information on your computer. The virus usually enters the computer through various websites and USB. However, if you are a little careful, you can protect the computer from the entry of such viruses.


2.Online cyber crime


With the rise of computer and internet usage, cyber crime is increasing day by day. Most criminals commit cyber crimes using computers and computer networks in general. 


A cyber criminal can steal a variety of Pogan passwords, including stealing confidential information from your computer, which can cause you financial loss as well as loss of dignity.

3.Decreased employment opportunities


It is a fact that as the use of computers increases, so do the employment opportunities of the people. Because the work that 10 people used to do together, the computer is now solving that task alone very accurately. 


Due to the increase in the use of computers in government and private offices, employment in those offices has declined at a huge rate. 

The future of computers

However, a lot of technological changes are coming in computers day by day. As the days go by the working capacity of the computer is increasing and it is becoming possible to buy very affordable price. As human demand increases, so will the computer. Earlier a computer was the size of a house, now it is possible to carry it in our hands.

There will come a time when computers will be controlled by our minds. Scientists are now doing more research on optical computers, DNA computers, neural computers and quantum computers. At the same time, a lot of attention is being paid to artificial intelligence so that it can do its job easily.

What did you learn today?

By now you must have known in detail what a computer is and what a computer is. I am absolutely confident that if you read this post carefully, you will not have to learn anything more about the basics of computer.


I think from now on you will be able to answer the question of what a computer is. If reading this article seems informative then I request all readers to share this information with your neighbors, relatives, your friends so that awareness is created among us and details about computer can be learned.

After reading this post, if you have any more questions about computer, you can ask your question in the comments. We will do our best to answer all your computer related questions.

Moreover, if you like today’s post on computer subject, you can let us know by commenting your opinion. Because one of your positive comments will inspire me to write regularly in the blog.

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